Fuel prices in Abia reach N680 per litre.


The current pump price for Premium Motor Spirit, or PMS, at various gas stations where the product is sold ranges from N600 to N680 per litre.

After newly-elected President Ahmed Bola Tinubu proclaimed that the age of fuel subsidies was gone on Tuesday morning, many filing stations that had supplied the product on Monday did not open for business.

In Umuahia, only a few gas stations were seen dispensing fuel, and those that were offered at exorbitant prices.

Any substance that may be produced to react with other substances to release energy as thermal energy or to be used for work is referred to as a fuel. The idea was initially only applied to substances that could release chemical energy, but it has subsequently been extended to include other types of thermal energy, such as nuclear energy (produced by nuclear fission and nuclear fusion).

A heat engine can transform the heat energy released by fuel reactions into mechanical energy. Other times, the heat itself is prized for its ability to provide warmth, facilitate cooking or industrial activities, and produce light when combustion occurs. In cellular respiration, which is a process where organic molecules are oxidized to produce other fuels, fuels are also utilized by organisms in their cells.

liberate useful energy. Humans most frequently employ hydrocarbons and related organic compounds as fuel, although other materials, including radioactive metals, are occasionally used.

In comparison to other materials or machinery that directly release mechanical or electrical energy, such as flywheels, springs, compressed air, or water in a reservoir, fuels are those that store potential energy but do not directly release it.


using wood as a source of fuel

Homo erectus burned firewood as the first known usage of fuel almost two million years ago.[Reference needed] Only fuels generated from plants or animal fat were used by humans for the majority of recorded human history. Metal melting has been done with charcoal, a product of wood, since at least 6,000 BCE. It wasn't until the 18th century, when European forests began to be exhausted, that coke, made from coal, took its place. Briquettes of charcoal are now frequently used as the fuel for grilling.[Reference needed]

Persian chemists invented the crude oil distillation process, which is described in detail in Arabic handbooks such those by Muhammad ibn Zakariya Rzi. In his Kitab al-Asrar (Book of Secrets), he explained how crude oil/petroleum is refined into kerosene and other hydrocarbon compounds. During the same time period, kerosene was also made from bitumen and oil shale by burning the rock to release the oil, which was then distilled. Rzi also provided the first description of the "naffatah," a kerosene light that burns unrefined mineral oil.

the roads of Baghdad were covered in tar, which was made from petroleum that was made available from nearby natural reserves. Oil reserves were tapped in the vicinity of present-day Baku, Azerbaijan, in the ninth century. In the 10th century, the Arab geographer Abu al-Hasan 'Al al-Mas'd wrote about these fields. In the 13th century, Marco Polo wrote about them and stated that the yield of those wells was hundreds of shiploads.

Coal became more widely used as a power source as a result of the energy that could be generated through burning in the form of chemical energy and the concept development of the steam engine in the United Kingdom in 1769. Later, coal was utilized to power locomotives and ships. Gas produced from coal was first used in the 19th century.

utilized for London's street lighting. Coal has been used mostly to produce energy in the 20th and 21st centuries; in 2005, it supplied 40% of the world's electrical power.

Since fossil fuels were more concentrated and adaptable than conventional energy sources like water power, they were quickly adopted throughout the Industrial Revolution. Fossil fuels have played a significant role in our modern culture, with the majority of nations using them to generate electricity. However, because of the global warming and other impacts that come with burning them, they are losing favor.

The current trend is toward renewable fuels, like alcohol-based biofuels.

Chemical Fuels are chemicals that release energy through chemical reactions. especially by the burning process, all around them.

You can categorize chemical fuels in two ways. First, based on whether they are a solid, liquid, or gas. The second way is according to where they are found: primary (natural fuel) and secondary (manufactured fuel). So, here is a list of chemical fuels in general:

Solid fuel is coal.

Different forms of solid materials that are used as fuel to generate energy and provide heating, mainly released by combustion, are referred to as solid fuel. Solid fuels include wood, charcoal, peat, coal, hexamine fuel tablets, and pellets consisting of corn, wheat, rye, and other grains as well as pellets derived from wood (see wood pellets). Solid fuel is also used in solid-fuel rocket technology (see solid propellants). Humanity has long made use of solid fuels to start fires. The industrial revolution was made possible by the use of coal as the fuel for everything from steam engines to furnaces. Additionally, wood was frequently utilized to power steam trains. Today, electricity is still produced using both peat and coal. using a few solid fuels 

Due to hazardous amounts of harmful pollutants, several forms of energy (such coal) are limited or outlawed in metropolitan areas. With advancements in heating technology and the availability of high-quality fuel, the usage of other solid fuels besides wood is declining. Smokeless coal is frequently the only solid fuel utilized in some locations. Peat briquettes are a popular smokeless fuel in Ireland. A coal fire can also be started using these.

An oil station

Liquid fuels are energy-producing or combustible substances that can be used to generate mechanical energy, typically kinetic energy. Liquid fuel vapors, not the fluids themselves, are combustible, therefore they must also take the shape of their container.

The majority of liquid fuels that are used often come from the fossils are the preserved remains of dead plants and animals that were subjected to pressure and heat inside the Earth's crust. However, there are a number of other kinds, including biodiesel, ethanol, jet fuel, hydrogen fuel (for use in automobiles), and liquid fuels like ethanol. To make heavy oil fractions useable as liquid fuels, emulsified fuels of oil in water, including orimulsion, have been developed. Numerous liquid fuels are essential to the economy and transportation.

Liquid fuels frequently have characteristics like ease of handling and ease of transportation. For all engineering applications as well as for usage at home, they are also rather simple to use. Some nations limit fuels like kerosene, such as the government-funded stores in India

for usage at home.

Conventional diesel is made out of a blend of aliphatic hydrocarbons that are derived from petroleum, just like regular gasoline. Kerosene is a fuel for small engines, small heaters, and kerosene lamps. Because natural gas, which primarily consists of methane, can only exist as a liquid at very low temperatures (regardless of pressure), most applications do not directly utilise it as a liquid fuel. Propane and butane, two easily compressible gases under typical air conditions, are the main components of LP gas. Although it has many of the same benefits as compressed natural gas (CNG), it is denser than air, burns less cleanly, and compresses considerably more readily. LP gas and electricity are typically utilized for room heating and In motorized vehicles, pressurized propane is being used more frequently. The third most popular automotive fuel worldwide is propane.

Gas Fuel

a propane cylinder weighing 20 pounds (9.1 kg)
Any fuel that is gaseous under normal circumstances is referred to as fuel gas. Hydrocarbons (such methane or propane), hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or combinations of these make up a large portion of fuel gases. These gases are potential sources of heat or light energy that are easily transferred through pipes from the point of origin to the location of consumption. Although certain fuel gases are liquefied for storage or transportation, fuel gas is compared with liquid fuels and solid fuels. While their gaseous nature can be advantageous because it avoids the challenges of transporting solid fuel and the risks of leakage associated with liquid fuels, it can also be dangerous. Fuel gases have the potential to build up undetected in specific locations, increasing the risk of a gas explosion. In order to make most fuel gases detectable by smell, odorizers are typically added to them. Natural gas is currently the most widely used type of fuel gas.

Biofuels and biomass (energy) are the two main articles.
A broad definition of biofuel is any solid, liquid, or gas fuel made from or produced from biomass. The term "biomass fuel" refers to the use of biomass directly for heating or power. Any carbon source that can be replaced quickly, like plants, can be used to make biofuel. The production of biofuels uses a wide variety of plants and components obtained from plants.

possibly the earliest type of fuel used Wood is created by people. Evidence from Swartkrans, South Africa, indicates that controlled fire was utilized up to 1.5 million years ago. Given the presence of both Australopithecus and an early form of Homo at the sites, it is unknown which hominid species used fire first.[8] Although it has been replaced for many uses by other sources, wood has continued to be used as a fuel up until the present. The energy density of wood is 10–20 MJ/kg.

Recently, biofuels (such bioethanol and biodiesel) have been created for use in vehicular transportation, however there is a lot of public discussion over how carbon neutral these fuels are.[Reference needed]

Fuel from fossil sources

obtaining petroleum
Hydrocarbons, such as coal and petroleum (liquid or natural), make up the majority of fossil fuels.
gas), created from the preserved remains of extinct plants and animals over hundreds of millions of years by exposure to intense heat and pressure without oxygen in the Earth's crust.the term "fossil fuel" is frequently used to refer to hydrocarbon-containing natural resources that aren't wholly sourced from biological sources, such tar sands. Mineral fuels are the right term for these latter sources.

Coal, oil, and natural gas are examples of fossil fuels, which have high carbon content. They range from liquid petroleum to nonvolatile substances made almost entirely of carbon, such as anthracite coal, to volatile substances with low carbon:hydrogen ratios like methane. Methane can be discovered in hydrocarbon fields on its own, in conjunction with oil, or as methane clathrates. Fossil fuels are made of  the preserved remains of extinct plants[ due to millions of years of exposure to pressure and heat in the Earth's crust. Georg Agricola, a German scholar, initially proposed this biogenic hypothesis in 1556. Mikhail Lomonosov later developed it in the 18th century.

The Energy Information Administration projected that in 2007, the world's primary energy consumption was made up of 86.4% of fossil fuels, with petroleum accounting for 36.0% of primary energy sources, coal for 27.4%, and natural gas for 23.0%.[ Hydroelectricity made up 6.3% of non-fossil sources in 2006, nuclear energy accounted for 8.5%, and the remaining 0.9% came from geothermal, solar, tidal, wind, wood, and trash. Global energy consumption was increasing at a 2.3% annual rate.

Because they take millions of years to develop and have limited reserves, fossil fuels are non-renewable resources.

are being used up far more quickly than new ones are being produced. Therefore, we need to use these fuels sparingly and conserve them. Fossil fuel production and use cause environmental problems. In order to help satisfy the world's growing energy needs, a drive toward the production of renewable energy is currently underway. There is an annual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide of 10.65 billion tonnes (one tonne of atmospheric carbon is equal to 44/12 or 3.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide) as a result of the burning of fossil fuels, which produces about 21.3 billion tonnes (21.3 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. However, it is thought that natural processes can only absorb about half of that amount.One of the greenhouse gases that increases radiant heat is carbon dioxide. forcing and adds to global warming, which in turn causes the Earth's average surface temperature to rise. The majority of climate experts agree that this will have significant negative repercussions. Energy can be obtained from fuels.


The quantity of energy produced by various fuel types depends on their specific energy, or the amount of energy per unit mass, as well as their stoichiometric ratio, which determines the chemically ideal air to fuel ratio for full combustion.

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